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Oracle Interview Questions

What is the maximum number of columns in a table of oracle DB ?

254

What are the various types of queries in Oracle ?

The types of queries are:

Normal Queries

Sub Queries

Co-related queries

Nested queries

 Compound queries

What are the components of physical database structure of Oracle database?

Oracle database is comprised of three types of files. One or more datafiles, two are more redo log files, and one or more control files.

What are actual and formal parameters ?

Actual Parameters : Subprograms pass information using parameters.The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters.For example, the following procedure call lists two actual parameters named emp_num and amount:

Eg.raise_salary(emp_num, amount);

Formal Parameters : The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters.For example, the following procedure declares two formal parameters named emp_id and increase:

Eg.PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER, increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL;

What are various types of joins in Oracle ?

Types of joins are:

Equijoins

Non-equijoins

self join

outer join

What are the components of logical database structure of Oracle database?

There are tablespaces and database s schema objects.

What s the length of SQL integer?

32 bit

What is a tablespace?

A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called tablespaces. A tablespace is used to grouped related logical structures together.

What is an oracle instance?

What is an Archiver in Oracle?

What is a partition of table in Oracle?

What is a transaction in Oracle ?

A transaction is a set of SQL statements between any two COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements.

What is SYSTEM tablespace and when is it created?

Every Oracle database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM, which is automatically created when the database is created. The SYSTEM tablespace always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database.

Explain the relationship among database, tablespace and data file ?

Each databases logically divided into one or more tablespaces one or more data files are explicitly created for each tablespace.

What are the various types of Exceptions in Oracle ?

User defined Exceptions

Predefined Exceptions

What is implicit cursor and how is it used by Oracle ?

An implicit cursor is a cursor which is internally created by Oracle.It is created by Oracle for each individual SQL

What is schema?

A schema is collection of database objects of a user.

What are the types of Notation in Oracle ?

Position, Named, Mixed and Restrictions.

What is an exception in Oracle?

What is a synonym in Oracle?

What is a join, and what are the different types of joins in Oracle?

What are Schema Objects?

Schema objects are the logical structures that directly refer to the database s data. Schema objects include tables, views, sequences, synonyms, indexes, clusters, database triggers, procedures, functions packages and database links.

Can objects of the same schema reside in different tablespaces?

Yes.

Can a tablespace hold objects from different schemes?

Yes.

What is Oracle table?

A table is the basic unit of data storage in an Oracle database. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns.

What is an Oracle view?

A view is a virtual table. Every view has a query attached to it. (The query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns and rows of the table(s) the view uses.)

What is Partial Backup ?

A Partial Backup is any operating system backup short of a full backup, taken while the database is open or shut down.

What is Mirrored on-line Redo Log ?

A mirrored on-line redo log consists of copies of on-line redo log files physically located on separate disks, changes made to one member of the group are made to all members.

What are the various types of parameter modes in a procedure in Oracle ?

IN

OUT

INOUT

What is Full Backup ?

A full backup is an operating system backup of all data files, on-line redo log files and control file that constitute ORACLE database and the parameter.

Can a View based on another View ?

Yes.

Can a Tablespace hold objects from different Schemes ?

Yes.

Can objects of the same Schema reside in different tablespace ?

Yes.

What is the use of Control File ?

When an instance of an ORACLE database is started, its control file is used to identify the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. It is also used in database recovery.

What is a schema in Oracle?

ODBC stands for?

What is mean by de-normalization?

Do View contain Data ?

Views do not contain or store data.

What are the Referential actions supported by FOREIGN KEY integrity constraint ?

UPDATE and DELETE Restrict - A referential integrity rule that disallows the update or deletion of referenced data. DELETE Cascade - When a referenced row is deleted all associated dependent rows are deleted.

What are the type of Synonyms?

There are two types of Synonyms Private and Public.

What is a Redo Log ?

The set of Redo Log files YSDATE,UID,USER or USERENV SQL functions, or the pseudo columns LEVEL or ROWNUM.

What is an Index Segment ?

Each Index has an Index segment that stores all of its data.

What is a cursor?

Advantages of redo log files?

What is referential integrity?

Explain the relationship among Database, Tablespace and Data file?

Each databases logically divided into one or more tablespaces one or more data files are explicitly created for each tablespace

What are the different type of Segments ?

Data Segment, Index Segment, Rollback Segment and Temporary Segment.

What are Clusters ?

Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores together to share common columns and are often used together.

What is an Integrity Constrains ?

An integrity constraint is a declarative way to define a business rule for a column of a table.

What is an Index ?

An Index is an optional structure associated with a table to have direct access to rows, which can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on one or more columns of a table.

What is an Extent ?

An Extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks, obtained in a single allocation, and used to store a specific type of information.

What is a View ?

A view is a virtual table. Every view has a Query attached to it. (The Query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns and rows of the table(s) the view uses.)

What is Table ?

A table is the basic unit of data storage in an ORACLE database. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns.

What is a co-related sub-query?

What are the steps in a two-phase commit?

Can a view based on another view?

Yes.

What are the advantages of views?

- Provide an additional level of table security, by restricting access to a predetermined set of rows and columns of a table.

- Hide data complexity.

- Simplify commands for the user.

- Present the data in a different perspective from that of the base table.

- Store complex queries.

What is an Oracle sequence?

A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database s tables.

What is a synonym?

A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit.

What are the types of synonyms?

There are two types of synonyms private and public.

What is a private synonym?

Only its owner can access a private synonym.

What is a public synonym?

Any database user can access a public synonym.

What are synonyms used for?

Mask the real name and owner of an object.

Provide public access to an object

Provide location transparency for tables, views or program units of a remote database.

Simplify the SQL statements for database users.

What is an Oracle index?

An index is an optional structure associated with a table to have direct access to rows, which can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on one or more columns of a table.

How are the index updates?

Indexes are automatically maintained and used by Oracle. Changes to table data are automatically incorporated into all relevant indexes.

Describe the Normalization principles?

Data-type used to work with integers is?

What is a Tablespace?

A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called tablespace. A tablespace is used to grouped related logical structures together

What is Rollback Segment ?

A Database contains one or more Rollback Segments to temporarily store “undo” information.

What are the Characteristics of Data Files ?

A data file can be associated with only one database. Once created a data file can t change size. One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace.

How to define Data Block size ?

A data block size is specified for each ORACLE database when the database is created. A database users and allocated free database space in ORACLE data blocks. Block size is specified in INIT.ORA file and can t be changed latter.

What does a Control file Contain ?

A Control file records the physical structure of the database. It contains the following information.

Database Name

Names and locations of a database s files and redolog files.

Time stamp of database creation.

What is difference between UNIQUE constraint and PRIMARY KEY constraint ?

A column defined as UNIQUE can contain Nulls while a column defined as PRIMARY KEY can t contain Nulls.

What is Index Cluster ?

A Cluster with an index on the Cluster Key

When does a Transaction end ?

When it is committed or Rollbacked.

What is the effect of setting the value “ALL_ROWS” for OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command ? What are the factors that affect OPTIMIZER in choosing an Optimization approach ?

Answer The OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter Statistics in the Data Dictionary the OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command hints in the statement.

What is the effect of setting the value “CHOOSE” for OPTIMIZER_GOAL, parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command ?

The Optimizer chooses Cost_based approach and optimizes with the goal of best throughput if statistics for atleast one of the tables accessed by the SQL statement exist in the data dictionary. Otherwise the OPTIMIZER chooses RULE_based approach.

What is a trigger?

What is a union, intersect, minus in Oracle?

What are the different approaches used by Optimizer in choosing an execution plan ?

Rule-based and Cost-based.

What does ROLLBACK do ?

ROLLBACK retracts any of the changes resulting from the SQL statements in the transaction.

What is a collection of privileges?

What is a database buffer cache in Oracle?

Use the same extent size for all the segments in a given tablespace. Locally Managed tablespaces (available from 8i onwards) with uniform extent sizes virtually eliminates any tablespace fragmentation. Note that the number of extents per segment does not cause any performance issue anymore, unless they run into thousands and thousands where additional I/O may be required to fetch the additional blocks where extent maps of the segment are stored.

What is COST-based approach to optimization ?

Considering available access paths and determining the most efficient execution plan based on statistics in the data dictionary for the tables accessed by the statement and their associated clusters and indexes.

What does COMMIT do ?

COMMIT makes permanent the changes resulting from all SQL statements in the transaction. The changes made by the SQL statements of a transaction become visible to other user sessions transactions that start only after transaction is committed.

Name the data dictionary that stores user-defined constraints?

Define Transaction ?

A Transaction is a logical unit of work that comprises one or more SQL statements executed by a single user.

What is Read-Only Transaction ?

A Read-Only transaction ensures that the results of each query executed in the transaction are consistant with respect to the same point in time.

What is a deadlock ? Explain .

Two processes wating to update the rows of a table which are locked by the other process then deadlock arises. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing proper row lock commands. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically.These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being

killed externally.

What is a Schema ?

The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema.

What is a cluster Key ?

The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stored only once for multiple tables in the cluster.

What are the Data Control statements?

What is Parallel Server ?

Multiple instances accessing the same database (Only In Multi-CPU environments)

What are the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database ?

It consists of

one or more data files.

one or more control files.

two or more redo log files.

The Database contains

multiple users/schemas

one or more rollback segments

one or more tablespaces

Data dictionary tables

User objects (table,indexes,views etc.,)

The server that access the database consists of

SGA (Database buffer, Dictionary Cache Buffers, Redo log buffers, Shared SQL pool)

SMON (System MONito)

PMON (Process MONitor)

LGWR (LoG Write)

DBWR (Data Base Write)

ARCH (ARCHiver)

CKPT (Check Point)

RECO

Dispatcher

User Process with associated PGS

What is clusters ?

Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called Cluster.

Describe data models?

What is an Index ? How it is implemented in Oracle Database ?

An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. An index is automatically created when a unique of primary key constraint clause is specified in create table comman (Ver 7.0)

What is a Database instance ? Explain

A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files.The process can be shared by all users. The memory structure that are used to store most queried data from database. This helps up to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file.

What is the use of ANALYZE command ?

To perform one of these function on an index, table, or cluster:

To collect statistics about object used by the optimizer and store them in the data dictionary.

To delete statistics about the object used by object from the data dictionary.

To validate the structure of the object.

To identify migrated and chained rows of the table or cluster.

What is default tablespace ?

The Tablespace to contain schema objects created without specifying a tablespace name.

What are the system resources that can be controlled through Profile ?

The number of concurrent sessions the user can establish the CPU processing time available to the user s session the CPU processing time available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the amount of logical I/O available to the user s session the amout of logical I/O available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the allowed amount of

idle time for the user s session the allowed amount of connect time for the user s session.

What is Tablespace Quota ?

The collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema on a particular tablespace.

What are the different Levels of Auditing ?

Statement Auditing, Privilege Auditing and Object Auditing.

What are the types of Normalization?

What is Statement Auditing ?

Statement auditing is the auditing of the powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects.

What are the database administrators utilities available ?

SQL * DBA - This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database. SQL * Loader - It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables. Export (EXP) and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database.

How can you enable automatic archiving ?

Shut the database

Backup the database

Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init.ora file.

Start up the database.

What are roles? How can we implement roles ?

Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users. Creating roles and assigning provides to roles. Assign each role to group of users. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users.

What are Roles ?

Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles.

What are the background processes in Oracle?

What are the use of Roles ?

REDUCED GRANTING OF PRIVILEGES - Rather than explicitly granting the same set of privileges to many users a database administrator can grant the privileges for a group of related users granted to a role and then grant only the role to each member of the group.

DYNAMIC PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT - When the privileges of a group must change, only the privileges of the role need to be modified. The security domains of all users granted the group s role automatically reflect the changes made to the role.SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY OF PRIVILEGES - The roles granted to a user can be selectively enable (available for use) or disabled (not available for use). This allows specific control of a user s privileges in any given situation.APPLICATION AWARENESS - A database application can be designed to automatically enable and disable selective roles when a user attempts to use the application.

What is Privilege Auditing ?

Privilege auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects.

What is Object Auditing ?

Object auditing is the auditing of accesses to specific schema objects without regard to user.

What is Auditing ?

Monitoring of user access to aid in the investigation of database use.

What is a snapshot?

What is a profile ?

Each database user is assigned a Profile that specifies limitations on various system resources available to the user.

How will you enforce security using stored procedures?

Don t grant user access directly to tables within the application. Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that access the tables. When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure.

What is a sequence?

How does one get the view definition of fixed views/tables?

Query v$fixed_view_definition. Example: SELECT * FROM v$fixed_view_definition WHERE view_name= V$SESSION ;

What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a database spaces ?

DBA_FREE_SPACE

DBA_SEGMENTS

DBA_DATA_FILES.

How can we specify the Archived log file name format and destination?

By setting the following values in init.ora file. LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch %S/s/T/tarc (%S - Log sequence number and is zero

left paded, %s - Log sequence number not padded. %T - Thread number lef-zero-paded and %t - Thread number not padded). The file name created is arch 0001 are if %S is used. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = path.

What is user Account in Oracle database?

An user account is not a physical structure in Database but it is having important relationship to the objects in the database and will be having certain privileges.

When will the data in the snapshot log be used?

We must be able to create a after row trigger on table (i.e., it should be not be already available) After giving table privileges. We cannot specify snapshot log name because oracle uses the name of the master table in the name of the database objects that support its snapshot log. The master table name should be less than or equal to 23 characters. (The table name created will be MLOGS_tablename, and trigger name will be TLOGS name).

What dynamic data replication?

Updating or Inserting records in remote database through database triggers. It may fail if remote database is having any problem.

What is Two-Phase Commit ?

Two-phase commit is mechanism that guarantees a distributed transaction either commits on all involved nodes or rolls back on all involved nodes to maintain data consistency across the global distributed database. It has two phase, a Prepare Phase and a Commit Phase.

How can you Enforce Referential Integrity in snapshots ?

Time the references to occur when master tables are not in use. Peform the reference the manually immdiately locking the master tables. We can join tables in snopshots by creating a complex snapshots that will based on the master tables.

What is a SQL * NET?

SQL *NET is ORACLE s mechanism for interfacing with the communication protocols used by the networks that facilitate distributed processing and distributed databases. It is used in Clint-Server and Server-Server communications.

What is a SNAPSHOT ?

Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node which is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table.

What is the mechanism provided by ORACLE for table replication ?

Snapshots and SNAPSHOT LOGs

What is snapshots?

Snapshot is an object used to dynamically replicate data between distribute database at specified time intervals. In ver 7.0 they are read only.

What are the various type of snapshots?

Simple and Complex.

Describe two phases of Two-phase commit ?

Prepare phase - The global coordinator (initiating node) ask a participants to prepare (to promise to commit or rollback the transaction, even if there is a failure) Commit - Phase - If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared, the coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction, if all participants cannot prepare, the coordinator asks all nodes to roll back the transaction.

What are the min.extents allocated to a rollback extent in Oracle ?

Two

What is snapshot log ?

It is a table that maintains a record of modifications to the master table in a snapshot. It is stored in the same database as master table and is only available for simple snapshots. It should be created before creating snapshots.

What are the benefits of distributed options in databases?

Database on other servers can be updated and those transactions can be grouped together with others in a logical unit.

Database uses a two phase commit.

What are the options available to refresh snapshots ?

COMPLETE - Tables are completely regenerated using the snapshots query and the master tables every time the snapshot referenced.

FAST - If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can be used to send the changes to the snapshot tables.

FORCE - Default value. If possible it performs a FAST refresh; Otherwise it will perform a complete refresh.

What is a SNAPSHOT LOG ?

A snapshot log is a table in the master database that is associated with the master table. ORACLE uses a snapshot log to track the rows that have been updated in the master table. Snapshot logs are used in updating the snapshots based on the master table.

What is Distributed database ?

A distributed database is a network of databases managed by multiple database servers that appears to a user as single logical database. The data of all databases in the distributed database can be simultaneously accessed and modified.

How can we reduce the network traffic?

Replication of data in distributed environment.

Using snapshots to replicate data.

Using remote procedure calls.

Differentiate simple and complex, snapshots ?

A simple snapshot is based on a query that does not contains GROUP BY clauses, CONNECT BY clauses, JOINs, sub-query or snashot of operations.

A complex snapshots contain atleast any one of the above.

What are the Built-ins used for sending Parameters to forms?

You can pass parameter values to a form when an application executes the call_form, New_form, Open_form or Run_product.

Can you have more than one content canvas view attached with a window?

Yes. Each window you create must have atleast one content canvas view assigned to it. You can also create a window that has manipulated content canvas view. At run time only one of the content canvas views assign to a window is displayed at a time.

Is the After report trigger fired if the report execution fails?

Yes.

What is Multi Threaded Server (MTA) in Oracle ?

In a Single Threaded Architecture (or a dedicated server configuration) the database manager creates a separate process for each database user.But in MTA the database manager can assign multiple users (multiple user processes) to a single dispatcher (server process), a controlling process that queues request for work thus reducing the databases memory requirement and

resources.

Does a Before form trigger fire when the parameter form is suppressed?

Yes.

What is SGA?

The System Global Area in an Oracle database is the area in memory to facilitate the transfer of information between users. It holds the most recently requested structural information between users. It holds the most recently requested structural information about the database. The structure is database buffers, dictionary cache, redo log buffer and shared pool area.

What is a shared pool?

The data dictionary cache is stored in an area in SGA called the shared pool. This will allow sharing of parsed SQL statements among concurrent users.

What is mean by Program Global Area (PGA)?

It is area in memory that is used by a single Oracle user process.

What is a data segment?

Data segment are the physical areas within a database block in which the data associated with tables and clusters are stored.

What are the factors causing the reparsing of SQL statements in SGA?

Due to insufficient shared pool size.

Monitor the ratio of the reloads takes place while executing SQL statements. If the ratio is greater than 1 then increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE.

What are clusters?

Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores together to share common columns and are often used together.

What is cluster key?

The related columns of the tables in a cluster are called the cluster key.

Do a view contain data?

Views do not contain or store data.

What is user Account in Oracle database?

A user account is not a physical structure in database but it is having important relationship to the objects in the database and will be having certain privileges.

How will you enforce security using stored procedures?

Don t grant user access directly to tables within the application. Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that

access the tables. When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure.

What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a database space?

DBA_FREE_SPACE

DBA_SEGMENTS

DBA_DATA_FILES.

Can a property clause itself be based on a property clause?

Yes

If a parameter is used in a query without being previously defined, what diff. exist between. report 2.0 and 2.5 when the

Query is applied?

While both reports 2.0 and 2.5 create the parameter, report 2.5 gives a message that a bind parameter has been created.

What are the sql clauses supported in the link property sheet?

Where start with having.

What is trigger associated with the timer?

When-timer-expired.

What are the trigger associated with image items?

When-image-activated fires when the operators double clicks on an image itemwhen-image-pressed fires when an operator clicks or double clicks on an image item

What are the different windows events activated at runtimes?

When_window_activated

When_window_closed

When_window_deactivated

When_window_resized

Within this triggers, you can examine the built in system variable system. event_window to determine the name of the window for which the trigger fired.

When do you use data parameter type?

When the value of a data parameter being passed to a called product is always the name of the record group defined in the current form. Data parameters are used to pass data to products invoked with the run_product built-in subprogram.

What is difference between open_form and call_form?

when one form invokes another form by executing open_form the first form remains displayed, and operators can navigate between the forms as desired. when one form invokes another form by executing call_form, the called form is modal with respect to the calling form. That is, any windows that belong to the calling form are disabled, and operators cannot navigate

to them until they first exit the called form.

What is new_form built-in?

When one form invokes another form by executing new_form oracle form exits the first form and releases its memory before loading the new form calling new form completely replace the first with the second. If there are changes pending in the first form, the operator will be prompted to save them before the new form is loaded.

What is the “LOV of Validation” Property of an item? What is the use of it?

When LOV for Validation is set to True, Oracle Forms compares the current value of the text item to the values in the first column displayed in the LOV. Whenever the validation event occurs. If the value in the text item matches one of the values in the first column of the LOV, validation succeeds, the LOV is not displayed, and processing continues normally. If the value in the text item does not match one of the values in the first column of the LOV, Oracle Forms displays the LOV and uses the text item value as the search criteria to automatically reduce the list.

What is the diff. when Flex mode is mode on and when it is off?

When flex mode is on, reports automatically resizes the parent when the child is resized.

What is the diff. when confine mode is on and when it is off?

When confine mode is on, an object cannot be moved outside its parent in the layout.

What are visual attributes?

Visual attributes are the font, color, pattern proprieties that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application interface.

Which of the two views should objects according to possession?

view by structure.

What are the two types of views available in the object navigator(specific to report 2.5)?

View by structure and view by type .

What are the vbx controls?

Vbx control provide a simple method of building and enhancing user interfaces. The controls can use to obtain user inputs and display program outputs.vbx control where originally develop as extensions for the ms visual basic environments and include such items as sliders, rides and knobs.

What is the use of transactional triggers?

Using transactional triggers we can control or modify the default functionality of the oracle forms.

How do you create a new session while open a new form?

Using open_form built-in setting the session option Ex. Open_form( Stocks  ,active, session). when invoke the multiple forms with open form and call_form in the same application, state whether the following are true/False

What are the ways to monitor the performance of the report?

Use reports profile executable statement. Use SQL trace facility.

If two groups are not linked in the data model editor, What is the hierarchy between them?

Two group that is above are the left most rank higher than the group that is to right or below it.

An open form can not be execute the call_form procedure if you chain of called forms has been initiated by another open form?

True

Explain about horizontal, Vertical tool bar canvas views?

Tool bar canvas views are used to create tool bars for individual windows. Horizontal tool bars are display at the top of a window, just under its menu bar. Vertical Tool bars are displayed along the left side of a window

What is the purpose of the product order option in the column property sheet?

To specify the order of individual group evaluation in a cross products.

What is the use of image_zoom built-in?

To manipulate images in image items.

How do you reference a parameter indirectly?

To indirectly reference a parameter use the NAME IN, COPY  built-ins to indirectly set and reference the parameters value

Example name_in ( capital parameter my param ), Copy ( SURESH , Parameter my_param )

What is a timer?

Timer is an “internal time clock” that you can programmatically create to perform an action each time the times.

What are the two phases of block coordination?

There are two phases of block coordination: the clear phase and the population p