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SAP- ABAP Interview Questions

                                    ABAP / 4 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

1)         What is SAP R/3?

Ans      SAP R/3 refers to Systems Application and Product for data processing Real-time having a 3 tier architecture i.e. Presentation layer, Application layer and Database layer.

2)         What are the programming standards followed?

3)        
The Pictures are of actually taken at the Studio of Gucci Handbags Outlet
What are the contents in technical specifications?

Ans      There are five contents in Technical Settings: Data Class, Size Category, Buffering Permission, Buffering Type and Logging.

4)         What is an instance?

Ans      When you call a function module, an instance of its function group plus its data, is loaded into the memory area of the internal session. An ABAP program can load several instances by calling function modules from different function groups.

5)         How to take care of performance in ABAP Development?

6)         What is Function group? Difference between function group and function module?

Ans      Function Groups act as containers for Function Modules that logically belong together.

Function Groups

1)      These cannot be defined in a Function Module.

2)      It cannot be called.

3)      They are containers for Function Module.

Function Modules

1)      These must be defined in a Function Group.

2)      It can be called from any program.

3)      They are not containers for Function Group.

7)         What is the difference between ‘Select single * ‘ and ‘Select upto 1 rows’?

Ans      ‘Select single *’ – The result of the selection should be a single entry. If it is not possible to identify a unique entry, the system uses the first line of the selection. For e.g.

DATA : ITAB TYPE ZREKHA_EMP.

SELECT SINGLE * FROM ZREKHA_EMP INTO ITAB

WHERE EMPNO = ‘00101’ AND DEPTNO = ‘0010’.

WRITE : / ITAB-EMPNO, ITAB-EMPNAME,ITAB-DEPTNO.

Select upto 1 rows -

8)         What Function does data dictionary perform?

Ans      Central information repository for application and system data. The ABAP Dictionary contains data definitions (metadata) that allow you to describe all of the data structures in the system (like tables, views, and data types) in one place. This eliminates redundancy.

9)         Difference between domain and data element? What are aggregate object?

Ans      Domain - Specifies the technical attributes of a data element - its data type, length, possible values, and appearance on the screen. Each data element has an underlying domain. A single domain can be the basis for several data elements. Domains are objects in the ABAP Dictionary.

Data Element - Describes the business function of a table field. Its technical attributes are based on a domain, and its business function is described by its field labels and documentation.

Aggregate Object – Views, Match Code and Lock objects are called aggregate objects because they are formed from several related table.

10)       What is view? Different types of view. Explain?

Ans      View - A view is a virtual table containing fields from one or more tables. A virtual table that does not contain any data, but instead provides an application-oriented view of one or more ABAP Dictionary tables.

Different Types of View:

1)      Maintenance

2)      Database – It is on more than two tables.

3)      Projection – It is only on one table.

4)      Help

11)       Can u print decimals in type N? What is difference between float and packed data type?

Ans      No, we cannot print decimals in type N because decimal places are not permitted with N

data type.

Float Data Type: It cannot be declared in Parameters.

Packed Number: It can be declared in Parameters. For e.g.

PARAMETERS : A(4) TYPE P DECIMALS 2,

B(4) TYPE P DECIMALS 2.

DATA : C(4) TYPE P DECIMALS 2.

C = A + B.

WRITE : / ‘THE SUM IS’ , C.

12)       What is step-loop? Explain all the steps?

Ans      A step loop is a repeated series of field-blocks in a screen. Each block can contain one or more fields, and can extend over more than one line on the screen.

Step loops as structures in a screen do not have individual names. The screen can contain more than one step-loop, but if so, you must program the LOOP…ENDLOOPs in the flow logic accordingly. The ordering of the LOOP…ENDLOOPs must exactly parallel the order of the step loops in the screen. The ordering tells the system which loop processing to apply to which loop. Step loops in a screen are ordered primarily by screen row, and secondarily by screen column.

Transaction TZ61 (development class SDWA) implements a step loop version of the table you saw in transaction TZ60.

Static and Dynamic Step Loops

Step loops fall into two classes: static and dynamic. Static step loops have a fixed size that cannot be changed at runtime. Dynamic step loops are variable in size. If the user re-sizes the window, the system automatically increases or decreases the number of step loop blocks displayed. In any given screen, you can define any number of static step loops, but only a single dynamic one.

You specify the class for a step loop in the Screen Painter. Each loop in a screen has the attributes Looptype (fixed=static, variable=dynamic) and Loopcount. If a loop is fixed, the Loopcount tells the number of loop-blocks displayed for the loop. This number can never change.

Programming with static and dynamic step loops is essentially the same. You can use both the LOOP and LOOP AT statements for both types.

Looping in a Step Loop

When you use LOOP AT with a step loop, the system automatically displays the step loop with vertical scroll bars. The scroll bars, and the updated (scrolled) table display, are managed by the system.

Use the following additional parameters if desired:

FROM and TO

CURSOR

13)       What is the initial value and maximum length of all data type?

Ans

Data Type

Initial field length

Valid field length

Initial value

Meaning

 

Numeric types

 

I

4

4

0

Integer (whole number)

 

F

8

8

0

Floating point number

 

P

8

1 – 16

0

Packed number

 

Character types

 

C

1

1 – 65535

‘ … ‘

Text field (alphanumeric characters)

 

D

8

8

‘00000000′

Date field (Format: YYYYMMDD)

 

 

N

1

1 – 65535

‘0 … 0′

Numeric text field (numeric characters)

 

T

6

6

‘000000′

Time field (format: HHMMSS)

Hexadecimal type

 

X

1

1 – 65535

X’0 … 0′

Hexadecimal field

 

                     

14)       What are the ways to find out the tables used in the program?

Ans

15)       Can you have two detail lists from the basic list at the same time?

If yes how and if no why?

Ans

16)       What are the different functions used in sap script? What are the parameters used in each Function?

Ans      There are three different functions used in SAP Script:

1) OPEN_FORM

2) WRITE_FORM

3) CLOSE_FORM

Parameters in Each Function:

1) OPEN_FORM–

Exporting

Form

Language

2) WRITE_FORM–

Exporting

Element

Window

3)   CLOSE_FORM

17)       What is sequence of event triggered in report?

Ans      There are 6 events in report:

1) Initialization

2) At Selection-Screen

3) Start-of-Selection

4) Get

5) Get Late

6) End-of-Selection

7) Top-of-Page

8) End-of-Page

9) At Line Selection

10) At User Command

11) At PF (nn)

18)       What are standard layouts sets in the SAP Script?

Ans      There are four standard layouts in the SAP Script:

1) Header

2) Logo

3) Main Window

4) Footer

19)       What function module upload data from application server?

Ans

20)       What are the various types of selection screen event?

Ans      SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF BLOCK ABC WITH FRAME TITLE T01.

SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF SCREEN 500 AS WINDOW.

CALL SELECTION-SCREEN 500 STARTING AT 10 10.

21)       What do you know about a client?

Ans

22)       What are the system fields? Explain?

Ans      The ABAP system fields are active in all ABAP programs. They are filled by the runtime environment, and you can query their values in a program to find out particular states of the system. Although they are variables, you should not assign your own values to them, since this may overwrite information that is important for the normal running of the program. However, there are some isolated cases in which you may need to overwrite a system variable. For example, by assigning a new value to the field SY-LSIND, you can control navigation within details lists.

23)       What is SAP Script? What is the purpose of SAP Script? Difference between

SAP Script and Report?

Ans      SAP Script – It is the integrated text Management system of the SAP R/3 System. Two types – PC Editor & Line Editor.

Reports -  It is the way to display data fetched from database table onto screen or directly output it to a printer. Two types – Classical and Interactive.

24)       What is the use of occurs in internal table? Can u change occurs value in program?

Ans      Use of Occurs - If you use the OCCURS parameter, the value of the INITIAL SIZE of the table is returned to the variable

Data :  Begin of ITAB occurs 0,

End of ITAB.

Occurs or Initial Size – to specify the initial amount of memory that should be assigned to the table.

Yes, we can change the occurs value in program but output remains the same.

25)       Difference between SY-TABIX and SY-INDEX? Where it is used?

Can u check SY-SUBRC after perform?

Ans      SY-TABIX - Current line of an internal table. SY-TABIX is set by the statements below, but only for index tables. The field is either not set or is set to 0 for hashed tables.

* APPEND sets SY-TABIX to the index of the last line of the table, that is, it contains the overall number of entries in the table.

* COLLECT sets SY-TABIX to the index of the existing or inserted line in the table. If the table has the type HASHED TABLE, SY-TABIX is set to 0.

* LOOP AT sets SY-TABIX to the index of the current line at the beginning of each loop lass. At the end of the loop, SY-TABIX is reset to the value that it had before entering the loop. It is set to 0 if the table has the type HASHED TABLE.

* READ TABLE sets SY-TABIX to the index of the table line read. If you use a binary search, and the system does not find a line, SY-TABIX contains the total number of lines, or one more than the total number of lines. SY-INDEX is undefined if a linear search fails to return an entry.

* SEARCH FOR sets SY-TABIX to the index of the table line in which the search string is found.

SY_INDEX - In a DO or WHILE loop, SY-INDEX contains the number of loop passes including the current pass.

 

26)       Difference between UPLOAD and WS_UPLOAD?

Ans      UPLOAD - File transfer with dialog from presentation server file to internal table. Data which is available in a file on the presentation server is transferred in an internal table. ASCII & Binary files can be transferred.

WS_UPLOAD - To read data from the presentation server into an internal table without a user dialog, use the function module WS_UPLOAD. The most important parameters are listed below.

Parameters

Function

 

 

CODEPAGE

Only for upload under DOS: Value IBM

 

FILENAME

Filename

 

FILETYPE

File type

         

27)       Why did u switch to SAP?

Ans

28) What is a Logical Database?

Ans Logical Databases are special ABAP programs that retrieve data and make it available to application programs.

Use of LDB – is used to read data from database tables by linking them to executable ABAP programs.

29) What are the events used for Logical Database?

Ans Two Events –

1) GET - This is the most important event for executable programs that use a logical database. It occurs when the logical database has read a line from the node

and made it available to the program in the work area declared using the statement NODES

. The depth to which the logical database is read is determined by the GET statements2) PUT - The PUT statement directs the program flow according to the structure of

the logical database.

30) What is the difference between Get and Get Late?

Ans GET - After the logical database has read an entry from the node

.GET LATE - After all of the nodes of the logical database have been processed that are below

in the database hierarchy.

31) What are the data types of Internal Tables?

Ans There are three types:

1) Line

2) Key

3) Table

32) What are the events used in ABAP in the order of execution?

Ans Events are:

1. INITIALIZATION

2. AT SELECTION-SCREEN

3. AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON

4. START-OF-SELECTION

5. TOP-OF-PAGE

6. TOP-OF-PAGE DURING LINE SELECTION

7. END-OF-PAGE

8. END-OF-SELECTION

9. AT USER-COMMAND

10. AT LINE-SELECTION

11. AT PF

12. GET

13. GET LATE.

14. AT User Command

33) What are Interactive Reports?

Ans An output list which displays just the basic details & allow user to interact, so that a new list is populated based on user-selection. With interactive list, the user can actively control data retrieval and display during the session.

34) What are the commands used for interactive reports?

Ans Top-of-Page during line-selection

35) What are the system fields u have worked with? Explain?

Ans I had worked with the following (30) system fields:

1) SY-DBSYS - Central Database

2) SY-HOST - Server

3) SY-OPSYS - Operating System

4) SY-SAPRL - SAP Release

5) SY-SYSID - System Name

6) SY-LANGU - User Logon Language

7) SY-MANDT - Client

8)  SY-UNAME - Logon User Name

9) SY-DATLO - Local Date

10) SY-DATUM - Server Date

11) SY-TIMLO - Local Time

12) SY-UZEIT - Server Time

13) SY-DYNNR - Screen Number

14) SY-REPID - Current ABAP program

15) SY-TCODE - Transaction Code

16) SY-ULINE - Horizontal Line

17) SY-VLINE - Vertical Line

18) SY-INDEX - Number of current loop Pass

19) SY-TABIX - Current line of internal table

20) SY-DBCNT - Number of table entries processed

21) SY-SUBRC - Return Code

22) SY-UCOMM - Function Code

23) SY-LINCT - Page Length of list

24) SY-LINNO - Current Line

25) SY-PAGNO - Current Page Number

26) SY-LSIND - Index of List

27) SY-MSGID - Message Class

28) SY-MSGNO - Message Number

29) SY-MSGTY - Message Type

30) SY-SPONO - Spool number during printing

36) What is the difference between Primary key and Unique Key?

Ans Primary Key – It can accepts 0 value and cannot be NULL.

Unique Key – It can be NULL.

37) What is the transaction code for Table maintenance?

Ans SM30

38) If u are using Logical Databases how will u modify the selection-screen elements?

Ans Select-options : dname for deptt-dname.

39) What is an RFC?

Ans Remote Function Call

40) If u are using RFC and passing values to a remote system how does it work?

Ans

41) What are the events in Screen Programming?

Ans There are two events in Screen Programming:

1. PBO (Process Before Output) – Before the screen is displayed, the PBO event is processed.
2. PAI (Process After Input) – When the user interacts with the screen, the PAI event is processed.
3. POH (Process On Help) - are triggered when the user requests field help (F1). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.
4. POV (Process On Value) - are triggered when the user requests possible values help (F4). You can program the appropriate coding in the corresponding event blocks. At the end of processing, the system carries on processing the current screen.

42) What is the significance of HIDE?

Ans Its stores the click value and display the related record in the secondary list.

43) Where do u code the HIDE statement?

Ans In a LOOP statement

44) Types of BDC’s?

Ans There are two types of BDC’s:

1) Transaction Method

2) Session Method

45) Advantages & Disadvantages of different types of BDC’s?

Ans Transaction Method:

1) It is faster than session method.

2) While executing, it starts from starting.

Session Method:

1) It is slower than transaction method.

2) While executing, it does not start from starting.

46) What are the events used in Interactive Reports.

Ans There are three events of Interactive Reports:

I. At PF(nn)

II. At line-selection

III. At user-command

47) What is an RDBMS?

Ans RDBMS – Relational Database Management System. It helps to create relationship between two or more table.

48) What standards u use to follow while coding ABAP programs?

Ans

49) What will you code in START-OF-SELECTION & END-OF-SELECTON & why?

Ans START-OF-SELECTION

SELECT * FROM DEPTT INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF ITAB

WHERE DEPTNO IN DEPTNO.

APPEND ITAB.

ENDSELECT.

LOOP AT ITAB.

WRITE : / 10 ITAB-DEPTNO.

HIDE : ITAB-DEPTNO.

ENDLOOP.

END-OF-SELECTION

50) What are joins and different types joins?

Ans There are four types of Joins:

1) Self Join

2) Inner Join

3) Outer Join

4) Equi Join

51) Which is the default join?

Ans

52) How do u display a data in a Detail List?

Ans By using two statements:

1) Top-of-page during line-selection

2) At line-selection

53) What are the types of windows in SAP Script?

Ans There are five Standard Layouts in SAP Script:

1) Page

2) Window

3) Page Window

4) Paragraph Format

5) Character Format

54) What are the function modules used in a SAP Script driver program?

Ans There are three functions used in SAP Script:

1) OPEN_FORM

2) WRITE_FORM

3) CLOSE_FORM

55) What are Extracts?

Ans Extracts are dynamic sequential datasets in which different lines can have different structures. We can access the individual records in an extract dataset using a LOOP.

56) How would u go about improving the performance of a Program, which selects data from MSEG & MKPF?

Ans

57) How does System work in case of an Interactive Report?

Ans

58) What is LUW?

Ans Logical Unit of Work

59) Different types of LUWs. What r they?

Ans Two types of LUW are:

1) DB LUW - A database LUW is the mechanism used by the database to ensure that its data is always consistent. A database LUW is an inseparable sequence of database operations that ends with a database commit. The database LUW is either fully executed by the database system or not at all. Once a database LUW has been successfully executed, the database will be in a consistent state. If an error occurs within a database LUW, all of the database changes since the beginning of the database LUW are reversed. This leaves the database in the state it had before the transaction started.

2) SAP LUW - A logical unit consisting of dialog steps, whose changes are written to the database in a single database LUW is called an SAP LUW. Unlike a database LUW, an SAP LUW can span several dialog steps, and be executed using a series of different work processes.

60) What is First event triggered in program?

Ans

61) What are various Joins? What is right outer join?

Ans

62) How do u find out whether a file exits on the presentation server?

Ans eps_get_directory_listing for directory

63) Systems fields used for Interactive Lists AND Lists

Ans Interactive System Fields: SY-LSIND, SY-CPAGE, SY-LILLI, SY-LISEL, SY-LISTI,

SY-LSTAT, SY-STACO, SY-STARO

Lists: SY-COLNO, SY-LINCT, SY-LINNO, SY-LINSZ, SY-PAGNO,

SY-TVAR0…..SY-TVAR9, SY-WTITL

64) Logo in SAP Script?

Ans RSTXLDMC OR

Steps for making and inserting Logo in SAP Script:

First Procedure:

1) Draw the picture

2) Save it

3) /nSE78

4) Write name & Choose Color

5) Click on Import

6) Browse picture

7) Enter

Second Procedure

1) /nSE71

2) Insert

3) Graphics

4) Click on stored on document server

5) Execute

6) Choose name of BMAP

65) What are the difference between call screen and leave screen?

Ans Call Screen: Calling a single screen is a special case of embedding a screen sequence. If you want to prevent the called screen from covering the current screen completely, you can use the CALL SCREEN statement with the STARTING AT and ENDING AT

CALL SCREEN 1000.

CALL SCREEN 1000 STARTING AT 10 10 ENDING AT 20 20.

LEAVE SCREEN statement ends the current screen and calls the subsequent screen.

LEAVE SCREEN.

LEAVE TO SCREEN 2000.

66) If internal table used in for all entries in empty then what happens

Ans No, records will be displayed.

67) If I forgot some command in SAP Script e.g.: suppress zero display - How to do find it?

Ans Suppressing of entire screens is possible with this command. This command allows us to perform screen processing “in the background”. Suppressing screens is useful when we are branching to list-mode from a transaction dialog step.

68) How to write a BDC - how do u go about it?

Ans Steps for writing BDC

1) /nSE38

2) Declare Tables, Data (for ITAB) and Data (for BDCITAB)

3) Call function ‘Upload’.

4) Write code for the First Screen, Radio Button, Filename, Change Button, Second Screen, Utilities (Create Entries), Third Screen and Save.

5) Call transaction ‘SE11’ using BDCITAB mode ‘A’.

6) Save, Check Errors, Activate and Execute.

69) What is Performance tuning?

Ans

70) Define Documentation.

Ans

71) Brief about Testing of programs.

Ans

72) How do u move on to the next screen in interactive reporting?

Ans Write code of the following:

1) Top-of-Page during line-selection

2) At line-selection

73) Create any functions? How to go about it?

Ans Steps for creating the Functions:

First Procedure:

1) /nSE37

2) Goto

3) Function Group (FG)

4) Create Group

5) Name of FG (ZREKHA_FG)

6) Short Text

7) Save

8)  Local Object

Second Procedure

1) Environment

2) Inactive Object

3) Function Group (ZREKHA_FG)

4) Activate

5) Back

Third Procedure

1) Name of Function Module (ZREKHA_FM)

2) Create

3) Write FG Name (ZREKHA_FG)

4) Short Text

5) Save

Fourth Step:

Call function ‘ZREKHA_FM’.

74) Advanced topics?

Ans

75) Function modules used in F4 help.

Ans There are two types of function modules used in F4 help:

1) F4IF_FIELD_VALUE_REQUEST

2) F4IF_INT_TABLE_VALUE_REQUEST

76) Work most on which module: Name a few tables.

Ans Sales & Distribution Module

1) Sales Document: Item Data – VBAP

2) Sales Document: Partner – VBPA

3) Sales Document: Header Data – VBAK

4) Sales Document Flow – VBFA

5) Sales Document: Delivery Item Data - LIPS

6) Customer Master – KNA1

7) Material Data – MARA

8)  Conditions (Transaction Data) - KONV

77) System Table used

Ans

1) Sales Document: Item Data – VBAP

2) Sales Document: Partner – VBPA

3) Sales Document: Header Data – VBAK

4) Sales Document Flow – VBFA

5) Sales Document: Delivery Item Data - LIPS

6) Customer Master – KNA1

7) Material Data – MARA

8)  Conditions (Transaction Data) - KONV

78) From a table how do u find whether a material is used in another material BOM?

Ans

79) What is read line?

Ans READ LINE and READ CURRENT LINE – These statements are used to read data from the lines of existing list levels. These statements are closely connected to the HIDE technique.

80) How u used logical database? How is data transferred to program? Corresponding statement in LDB.

Ans

81) How do u suppress fields on selection screen generated by LDB?

Ans

82) Can there be more than 1 main window in SAP Script?

Ans No, there cannot be more than 1 main window in SAP Script because in WRITE_FOR